Culture » Overview

Exploring the transformative power of the arts – building bridges across cultures – supporting young cultural innovators

The Salzburg Global Seminar’s Culture and the Arts Program focuses on the transformative power of the arts, facilitates cultural exchange at multiple levels, and provides capacity-building opportunities through the annual Young Cultural Innovators Forum. Through multi-year projects and strategic convenings, the Culture and Arts Program seeks to secure a more prominent role for the arts on policy agendas and to support the continuously evolving needs of the creative sector – as a major driver of sustainable economic development and social improvement – through the multi-year Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Innovators.

Sessions in 2018:

The Shock of the New: Arts, Technology, and Making Sense of the Future - February 20 to 25, 2018

Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Innovators V - October 16 to 21, 2018

For past sessions, click here


Turi Munthe: Serving the News Market and Democracy
Turi Munthe: Serving the News Market and Democracy
Louise Hallman 
Iran, June 2009: the “green revolution” is mid-swing. Young Iranians take to the streets to protest the presidential election results that sees Mahmoud Ahmadinejad win a second term in office and the Revolutionary Guards with their volunteer militia force, the Basij, heavy-handily try to put down the protests. Western media are refused access – how to tell the story? That was Demotix’s first front-page photo. Demotix – a play on the word Greek work “demotic” meaning “of the people” – is a citizen photo, video and news agency, launched in January 2009. “It emerged out of two linked but separate realizations,” explains founder and former CEO, Turi Munthe, speaking following his participation as a faculty member at the Salzburg Global Seminar session ‘Power In Whose Palm: The Digital Democratization of Photography’ (February 23-27, 2013), where he spoke on the panel ‘The Brave New World: Democratization, Decentralization and Citizen Journalism’. “The first was that the media being produced was out of an ever-shrinking number of sources... On the other side…I was very interested in the ideas of freedom, freedom of speech, freedom of community as a political tool,” the former foreign correspondent and Middle East analyst elaborates. “Two big problems. Was there any way of putting these two things together? That’s where Demotix initiated from. We tried to create two things: One, create a free, safe platform for people anywhere to tell stories which were being told, trying to address the issue of the freedom of speech; two, feed those grassroots, local story-tellers into the mainstream media, trying to address the issue of news-sourcing.” This wasn’t to just be a free, altruistic exercise – Demotix was set up from the beginning to be a business. “We would take your story, uploaded from the backstreets of Bamako, and when we sold it to the New York Times, we’d split whatever we could sell it for 50/50. The idea behind that was that we would be able to create a business virtuous circle, where we could not only supply completely different news stories into the mainstream media, from locals, by locals, telling local stories, with a very different voice from those already told, and on the other hand, incentivize citizen journalism, which I think is a fundamental necessity for democracy,” says Munthe. Filling a gap in the market… Demotix has proven to fill a much needed gap in the market. “In June 2009, during the aborted Iranian uprising, every foreign journalist was arrested, all the locals were forbidden to leave or produce any of their work. I had friends whose materials were taken away, who were put in solitary confinement, not allowed into the country,” Munthe remembers. “There was a complete lock-down on any kind of foreign, any kind of news, coming out of Iran. We had about two dozen local Iranians on the streets of Tehran, shipping us news and photos. We had Google accounts; we tried to push them through a proxy network, which didn’t work because the internet was being so slowed. But that was our first front page of the New York Times. And ever since, we’ve grown.” Since its launch over four years ago, Demotix has grown to a community of 30,000 contributors in 212 territories, generating about 150 news stories a day. It has established publishing and sales agreements with a whole host of media outlets across the world including the BBC, Le Monde, Bild, TIME, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Grazia magazine and The Guardian, as well as a network of photo resellers in almost 40 countries. It was bought over by photo agency, Corbis, a move that was hailed by Munthe in 2012 as “an enormous step towards our goal of becoming a truly competitive international photojournalism agency.” …But pushing out the professionals? But if Demotix is filling a gap in the market with amateurs’ photos, is that not crowding out the professional photographers? After all, it’s much cheaper for a newspaper to buy an image from a newswire than it is to pay the salary of either a staff or freelance photographer. “On the contrary,” insists Munthe. “Demotix started as a fairly idealistic project and part of that idealism is to ensure that as many people as possible can get involved in the business of journalism. I’m myself a journalist and I’m aware of how much work it takes and that journalism needs to be paid for. “Demotix is a business and we’ve gone out of our way not just to maintain, but to stick with, the high level of prices.” By providing a collective as well as a route to market, Munthe believes Demotix photographers (despite ceding half of their photographs’ value to the organization’s brokerage charges) earn more than if they tried to sell them alone. Also, given Demotix’s process of verification, they have earned the trust of many media publications and outlets – something a freelancer might have to work years at building. Every image sold on by Demotix is “verified and edited and checked by us,” says Munthe. In search of authenticity and authority “That’s an absolutely critical part of what we do, since we don’t just download Twitter or Facebook and ship it through. We’ve been very careful… We’ve actually added as many obstacles as possible to people uploading photos, since news is difficult and we don’t want pictures of cats and sunsets and flowers and babies. What we want and what we get unfortunately is what’s really happening in the world, so far as earthquakes and accidents and wars. All of that work needs to be very, very carefully checked.” At Demotix, their verification process is based in round-the-clock technical and human solutions. “We have a combination of tech and straight-up human processes so that every single picture that goes through Demotix has been checked and edited by an individual editor. We’re using a series of algorithms to understand who is who in our community. We’ve a series of tech filters, which check every single image, for what we’ve been told by the contributor and for what the meta-data can tell us. Finally and most importantly, we have a human network which is global and online 24/7/365 to make sure each image is correct,” he explains. “Touching wood, as far as I remember, we have not yet sold an image we then had to retract,” says Munthe, with some relief. “We’ve certainly published images [on the Demotix website] we had to retract, for all sorts of reasons. Unfortunately it’s something that happens on a daily basis to all the big news wires and it’s even more important for us. As a starting business, it’s absolutely critical that our clients can rely on us… “The only reason journalists have any worth is because their readers, or their viewers, or their spectators, believe what they say.” Culture shift In addition to filling a gap in the need for photography form some of the world’s most volatile and inaccessible places, citizen journalism outfits like Demotix, maintains Munthe, also fill mainstream media’s growing need for authenticity and authority, owing to a “cultural shift” not only in how news outlets produce news but also in how we, the viewer and reader, consume and digest news. Perhaps it’s a sign of growing general media literacy or part of a wider distrust of authority and increasing sense of democracy, but many consumers are turning away from the traditional mainstream media in favor of their own social networks and the “real” footage they see on sites such as YouTube. “Fifteen years it would have been inconceivable for the BBC to run anything other than a high-definition, super-edited clip of one of their top correspondents, declaiming to his supine audience what the story of the attack on Kabul was,” says Munthe. “Today, broadcasters go out of their way, to broadcast hand-held mobile footage. And there you see a real shift, between the trust in authority—which is the trust-in-the-John-Simpson model—through to trust in this shaky hand-held footage, which suggests that it’s real, that it’s authentic.” This shift, Munthe says, is being mirrored in many areas of culture, from the demise of the Encyclopedia Britannica in the face of the rise of the collaborative online project of Wikipedia, to the proliferation of reality TV shows in lieu of high production dramas. The democratization of news gathering brought about by dual forces of necessity—the demise of traditional news media’s budget, and opportunity—the ubiquitous digital camera and mobile communications, has shifted some power into the palms of the consumer. But despite his business being built on that, Munthe still has reservations. “In many ways that’s wonderful and talks to this ever-growing sense of empowerment that people feel they have to contribute to the news and to get involved in the discourse on what’s going on,” says Munthe. “But I also feel, one of the problems is when you disenfranchise the idea of authority, you put knowledge on an equal footing, which is of course an absurdity… “I think that this shift towards a trust in what is authentic, away from what is authoritative, is fabulous in many ways, but I also think it’s deeply problematic and deeply needs redressing…for the news industry, including photography and photojournalism, to really thrive.” Turi Munthe stepped down from his role as CEO of Demotix to pursue new opportunities shortly after this interview was conducted.
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Zanele Moholi: "We don’t document for fun... I have a collective calling"
Zanele Moholi: "We don’t document for fun... I have a collective calling"
Louise Hallman 
South Africa is the only Africa country where not only is homosexuality not illegal, same-sex couples can also marry and adopt children, and are legally protected under anti-discrimination legislation. But this masks the horrors faced by many lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered South Africans. Through the medium of photography, one South African “visual activist” aims to show the truth of what it is like to live as a black lesbian in the country. “I’m a visual activist before I’m a photographer, before I’m an artist,” says the award winner photographer Zanele Muholi. The 40-year-old was selected as a Fellow for the Salzburg Global session ‘Power in Whose Palm? The Digital Democratization of Photography’ in February; her focus on black lesbians and dedication to the visual documentation of her community led to her being invited back as a member of the faculty for the session ‘LGBT and Human Rights: New Challenges, Next Steps’. Despite all the supposed legal protections the LGBT community receives in the increasingly prosperous southern African country, lesbians, especially black lesbians, are frequently subjected to “corrective rape” attacks, where often gangs of men pin down and sexually assault lesbians in attempts to “cure” them of their homosexuality. Some of these attacks have led to the death of their victims. As South Africa struggles to combat its high level of crime, these attacks often go unprosecuted. Speaking to Salzburg Global after the Power of Photography session in February, Muholi explained why she believes photographing this marginalized group is important: “If I even talk about the work that I’m doing on black lesbians, I’m not doing it for myself. I’m doing it for the younger generation; I’m doing it for the older generation, who never, who were never even given the opportunity to open their mouths.” Muholi has been widely acclaimed for her work. In March, Muholi was honored in London at Index on Censorship awards – which seek to “celebrate the fundamental right to write, blog, tweet, speak out, protest and create art and literature and music” – for her “courage and the powerful statements made by her work”. Accepting the award, Muholi said she hopes that her work helps other lesbians in South Africa. “The minute you see likeness is when you realize that no matter what you're going through in your own life, you are not alone,” she said. Capturing history The black lesbian sees her work as part of a wider effort to document black history in the post-Apartheid country. “The issue of black history is a very, very sensitive one, because you deal with a community that is ever degraded, if not excluded from mainstream spaces… “In South Africa, my focus has ever been on black lesbians, on black gays, on black trans-men. And why black specifically is because as black people, they don’t have a tangible history that is captured by us on us,” Muholi explained. “So my approach is that of an insider, and I know that it’s possible to do other races, but it’s easy for me to start with a community that I understand…and so doing it, unapologetically. “For many times, we have people who write our history on our behalf as if we did not exist, so this is my time, this is my terms and it is possible, or it should be, for us to do it on our own terms, in a way we fully understand. “We cannot always expect people to do things for us,” the photographer elaborated. “For the longest time, black history had been captured by the outsiders, as if we never existed. From our mothers to our fathers, to our great-grandfathers… I think one has to find ways to re-write the history, for our own great-grandchildren. For them to know that we were once here and for them to understand fully the resistance and other struggles, that we still encounter…now.” The Salzburg Global session on photography heard from many photographers who have used photography as a means for activism. Bangladeshi photographer Shahidul Alam’s exhibition ‘Crossfire’ exposed the extrajudicial killings of the Rapid Action Battalion to a wider international audience. Despite the accolades he has received for his photography, Alam says he simply works with the medium best suited to social activism. If something better comes along, he explains, he’ll change his medium and tactics. “Beyond me documenting in South Africa, the lessons and information I learned here, I can take back home and apply, so photography, films, audio-materials can be better used for advocacy work,” Muholi said on the last day of the session. “Other people may have different notions of how they perceive their photos as art; they don’t understand how you could push one political agenda using the very same.” Photography proves particularly persuasive in countries and communities where literacy is not yet high, said Muholi. “You don’t need to speak any special language in order for others to understand fully what’s going on. If you see a dead man, that doesn’t matter what language. If you see a person in shackles, [language] doesn’t matter.” Beyond posterity So, when she takes her photographs, is she doing it for posterity, or is it part of an agenda, an activism for the current space? “[My work] is beyond posterity,” said Muholi. “It’s for current reference, for use by scholars and other fanatics… We’re talking about the now, so it’s sort of like capturing the visual presence, which then becomes a visual history… To say, yes we are here.” In addition to her photography, Muholi also blogs and is a prominent voice in a growing community of queer and queer-focused artists in South Africa. She sees the work of her own and that of the community as more than just art – it is a vital part of the activism needed to counter the extreme prejudice faced by the LGBT community in the country. “We are dealing with human beings who are being violated and raped, simply because we express the sexuality we do. They’re at risk of either losing their lives, or being curatively raped, like how people assume, if you rape a lesbian, she’ll become a straight woman.” When speaking with Muholi, her anger at the situation is glaringly apparent. As a member of the black lesbian community, these are issues that she feels personally; she is not some neutral observer as some photographers and photojournalists try to be. (This neutral stance was perhaps most notable in the late Kevin Carter’s Pulitzer prize-winning photograph of the starving Sudanese girl stalked by a waiting vulture.) Whilst at the seminar in Salzburg, Muholi received news from a friend in Cape Town that another black lesbian had been killed because of her sexuality. Muholi and her photography collective have been photographing and documenting the funerals of such victims. “We don’t document for fun, or just because we have powers and cameras. With my team, I have a collective calling; we document all of these atrocities because we want the world to know that we have a situation at hand.” As the Open Society Foundation recently wrote in their publication on South African artists using their work to tackle social injustice, “Through her work, she shines a spotlight on her community – forcing everyone to acknowledge that they are ‘normal’, that what they do is ‘beautiful’, that who they are is ‘human’ – just like everyone else.” It is normality and acceptance, as well as an end to persecution that Muholi strives for. Just as the oppressive regime of apartheid was ended in South Africa in 1994, Muholi hopes to see the end of the persecution of the LGBT community in her country, and believes photography can be a tactic in doing so, bringing the plight of her community to the attention of the wider national and international consciousness. “We call upon those with powers to agitate with us, just like the people who worked with activists in South Africa to end apartheid and I think the same strategies could be used,” she said, angrily hopeful. Salzburg Global's photography session was named “Power in Whose Palm?” Apt for Muholi, who is determined to ensure the camera in her hands and the photography she produces is indeed powerful. See more of Zanele Muholi's work on her website
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The Role of Arts Organizations in Society and their Place in Communities
The Role of Arts Organizations in Society and their Place in Communities
Salzburg Global Seminar Staff 
The final panel presentation of of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders focussed on the topic of 'The Role of Arts Organizations in Society and their Place in Communities'. Sharing their experiences with their younger Fellows were co-chair Mulenga Kapwepwe, chair of the National Arts Council in Zambia, Tisa Ho, executive director of the Hong Kong Arts Festival and Eduardo Vilaro, artisitc director at Ballet Hispanico in the USA. Speaking to seminar partner, National Arts Strategies' Dallas Shelby, Ho, Vilaro and Kapwepwe gave their opinions on the key questions with our Young Cultural Leaders, as ever, responding. What is the place of cultural institutions within their communities? Kar Kuan Ng, Executive Director of the Hong Kong Arts Festival suggests that to be truly relevant an organization must be "in, of, for and about" its community. What is the role of arts organizations in society? Eduardo Vilaro, Artistic Director of Ballet Hispanico stresses the importance of art as a connector and being true to your mission. What is the role of an arts and culture leader in today's society? Mulenga Kapwepwe, Chairperson of the National Arts Council of Zambia and co-chair of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders, suggests that arts leaders are best equipped to shape the future. How can cultural organizations work with their communities rather than for their communities? Kapwepwe discusses how widening your definitions can broaden your understanding of community. The Role of Arts Organizations in Society: Discussion Points Fellows of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders talk about the day's discussion around the role of arts organizations in society and their place in the community.  
You can see more videos on the National Arts Strategies channel:
http://www.youtube.com/user/ArtsStrategies/, The YCI Webpage: http://yci.salzburgglobal.org and you can follow all the discussions in real time on our Twitter hashtag #SGSycl and Twitter list: https://twitter.com/salzburgglobal/sgs-498
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'Glocal' - What is Global and What is Local in Today's World?
'Glocal' - What is Global and What is Local in Today's World?
Salzburg Global Seminar Staff 
The second full of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders focussed on the topic of 'Glocal - what is global and what is local in today's world?'. Sharing their experiences with their younger Fellows were Serhan Ada, Head of the Cultural Management Program at Istanbul Bilgi University, Mikel Ellcessor, General Manager of public radio station WDET in Detroit, and Yudhishthir Raj Isar, Professor of Cultural Policy Studies at the American University of Paris and Eminent Research Visitor at the Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney. Speaking to seminar partner, National Arts Strategies' Dallas Shelby, Isar, Ellcessor and Ada gave their opinions on the key questions with our Young Cultural Leaders responding. How do arts and culture institutions deal with issues of cultural identity? Yudhishthir Raj Isar, professor of Cultural Policy Studies at The American University of Paris talks about the responsibility that arts and culture organizations have to provide cultural translation. How do cultural institutions balance being global and local? Mikel Ellcessor, General Manager of WDET in Detroit, warns that social media can give us a false sense of connection. He also gives a suggestion for how to make meaningful connections in one's community. How have the forces of globalization impacted the nature of cultural activity? Serhan Ada, Head of the Cultural Management Program at Istanbul Bilgi University, suggest that the "new normal" favors the creative. Fellows of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders talk about the day's discussion around the effects of globalization on culture.

You can see more videos on the National Arts Strategies channel:
http://www.youtube.com/user/ArtsStrategies/, the YCI webpage: http://yci.salzburgglobal.org/ and you can follow all the discussions in real time on our Twitter hashtag #SGSycl and Twitter list: https://twitter.com/salzburgglobal/sgs-498
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How Do You Communicate the Value of Arts and Culture?
How Do You Communicate the Value of Arts and Culture?
Salzburg Global Seminar Staff 

Sunday, October 27 saw the opening plenary discussions of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders. Tackling the topic of 'The Creation and the Communication of Value' were Gary Vikan, Director of the Walters Museum of Art, Deirdre Prins-Solani, an independent heritage and cultural expert in South Africa, and Patrick McIntyre, Executive Director of the Sydney Theatre Company. Below, they share their opinions on the key questions, with our Young Cultural Leaders giving their response. What can science tell us about the art experience? Gary Vikan, Director of the Walters Museum of Art on how neuroscience, evolutionary biology and the cave paintings in Lascaux might point to the fact that aesthetics is "hard-wired into our heads." How do we communicate the instrumental and intrinsic values of the arts? Vikan talks about the dangers of using economic impact as argument for the arts, the importance of articulating the intrinsic nature of the art experience and how neuroscience might unlock the mystery of that experience. What value does the arts create and how do we articulate it? Deirdre Prins-Solani, an independent heritage and cultural expert in South Africa talks about the interaction between the sacred and public spaces and how that tension creates value. What are the arguments for the arts that resonate with contemporary society? Patrick McIntyre, Executive Director of the Sydney Theatre Company on the need to talk about the arts in terms of its benefits rather than its features. What our Fellows think: The Creation and Communication of Value: Discussion Points
You can see more videos on the National Arts Strategies channel:
http://www.youtube.com/user/ArtsStrategies/, the YCI webpage: http://yci.salzburgglobal.org/ and you can follow all the discussions in real time on our Twitter hashtag #SGSycl and Twitter list:  https://twitter.com/salzburgglobal/sgs-498
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You are the future!
You are the future!
Salzburg Global Seminar Staff 
tanding at the front of Parker Hall and addressing 50 25-35 year olds, the president and CEO of National Arts Strategies, Russell Willis Taylor declared: “We are looking at our future. You are the future of our field!” These 50 people from 37 countries and six continents have been gathered as the inaugural in-take of the Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders, running from October 26 to November 1. The program has been designed in partnership between the Salzburg Global Seminar and US-based National Arts Strategies to identify and strengthen young leaders in the arts and culture sectors across the globe. Chosen from an vast field of applicants, the successful participants come a wide variety of backgrounds in the arts – from dance, music, and theater to visual media, museums, and festivals – and already have at least three years of professional experience in the cultural sector. To be selected they had to have a demonstrated interest in strengthening the position of the arts and arts institutions within societies and of having a positive impact on society, as well as showing creativity in their approach to work and openness to innovation. Through the program, co-chaired by Taylor and Mulenga Kapwepwe, chair of the National Arts Council of Zambia, these young practitioners will improve their leadership skills to enable them and their organizations to thrive in a field characterized by rapid change, uncertainty, and limited resources. Mixing theory and practice, the Young Cultural Leaders will hear lectures on the creation and communication of value, defining what is global and local in today’s interconnected world, and the role of arts organizations in society and communities, as well as participating in skills development workshops focussing on effective communication and team-building, change management and innovation—all draw on the knowledge and experience of and delivered by recognized international experts, from across the world. The intention of the annual forum is to strengthen the leadership capacity both of individuals and of the field as a whole, while at the same time enhancing international understanding and cultural exchange through a vital, new global network of young cultural leaders. Explaining why Salzburg Global Seminar had taken a leading role in developing such a program, Vice President and Chief Program Officer Clare Shine explained: “Salzburg Global Seminar was founded in 1947 but right from the start, the idea of youth being a driver and not seeing any reason to say “why not?” was part of the DNA…
 “Even in the early years, the performing arts, the different artistic disciplines were an integral part to the way they approached the values and the debate around how you build a better society so that it would not go back to war again in that century. “When you look back over the 65 years of our programming, we’ve had this continuous connective tissue of programs around the arts, around culture, but also around the social cohesion that goes with bringing people together outside their ordinary productive sectors. What we try to do now, and what is a priority as we go forward, is looking to see what we can learn from the nature of the arts in not only the way we do our culture and arts programming but also what they can tell us in the other areas of our work… “The value of learning through creative practice to collaborate, to listen, to value other voices, to value other perspectives that may seem very strange in the beginning—that set of skills is absolutely critical to global problem-solving and the mission of the Seminar is bound up with challenging creative thinking around the global problems of today and tomorrow.”
The program runs from Saturday, October 26 until Thursday, November 1. A full list of faculty is available here: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/498. To follow the discussions taking place at the seminar, please check out our Twitter hashtag #SGSycl and Twitter list:
https://twitter.com/salzburgglobal/sgs-498  and for more information visit the YCI webpage: http://yci.salzburgglobal.org/
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Resistance and Readiness
Resistance and Readiness
Louise Hallman and Marty Gecek 

In 2002, in a world still reeling from the recent terrorist attacks of September 11 2001, Americanists from all over the world came to Schloss Leopoldskron, Austria to address “The Continuing Challenge of America's Ethnic Pluralism”.  Ten years on, the
Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association will again tackle the issues of race and ethnicity in the US and Europe. That earlier symposium focused mainly on general issues of race and ethnicity, the impact of then-recent immigrants and refugees in the US, and concern about mounting xenophobia in the USA in the immediate wake of “9/11.” On both sides of the Atlantic, tensions between Muslim and non-Muslim groups have grown in the past ten years since the cataclysmic Twin Towers attacks in regard to issues of migration, integration, and what some have called “the limits of tolerance.” Two major wars; further terrorist attacks in Madrid, London and Texas – all purportedly perpetrated by local or home-grown Islamic extremists; increasing legislation against the wearing of religious symbols such as the burqa, niqab, and hijab (traditional Muslim women’s full face veils and headscarf) in Belgium and France; and the use of planning laws to halt the building of mosques in the USA and Switzerland, have all contributed to a sense of uneasiness and distrust for some on both sides of the religious and ethnic divides. But it is not only anti-Muslim sentiment that has grown.  Over the past decade, Europe has seen not only a growth in immigration numbers from asylum seekers – most notable in places such as the controversial Sangatte refugee camp near Calais, France – but also with the increased migration within the EU since Directive 2004/38/EC on the right to move and reside freely was introduced; statistics from the American organization, Migration Policy Institute indicate that in 2010 there were 850,000 eastern Europeans living in the UK alone.  Although these economic migrants are European, their arrival in their new European homes has been met with hostility in some areas, with the Roma community particularly affected; Roma have been expelled from towns and cities in France and Northern Ireland, driven out either by the local authorities or, in the worst incidents, angry mobs. In the US too, there have been increases in legislation to curb immigration and to root out illegal immigrants already living in the country.  Controversial new laws have been proposed and enacted, most notably the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act in Arizona. Supporters of the law claim the Arizona measure simply allows police to question legal residency only after a person has been stopped on reasonable suspicion of another crime.  Its detractors have called it “an unconstitutional and costly measure that will violate the civil rights of all Arizonans,” with accusations of racial profiling and deliberate targeting of the local Latino community. It is against this backdrop of rising racial tensions that the ninth symposium held by the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association on September 27-October 1, 2012 will again discuss these hot topics of race and ethnicity, but this time from a much more comparative perspective, looking at both the European and American experiences of immigration, nativism and the challenge of ethnic and religious diversity. Europe is threatened by a number of risks, claims a 2011 report by the Group of Eminent Persons of the Council of Europe.  ‘Living Together: Combing Diversity and Freedom in 21st Century Europe’ states rising intolerance and support for xenophobic and populist parties, along with discrimination, the development of parallel societies, and Islamic extremism, coupled with the loss of democratic freedoms and civil liberties – long held precious across liberal Western societies now in fear of “being swamped by an uncontrolled influx of immigrants and/or massacred by Islamic terrorists” – and a possible clash between “religious freedom” and freedom of expression have resulted from a growing sense of insecurity brought in part because of immigration, magnified by the distorted image of minorities and harmful stereotypes propagated in the media, and a crisis of leadership. Over the course of the four-day session, Fellows from across Europe and the US will discuss this paper – the threats and their proposed responses – together with a faculty including Farid Hafez, researcher and lecturer at the University of Vienna’s Department of Oriental Studies; Rob Kroes, former president of the European Association of American Studies; Berndt Ostendorf, Professor Emeritus of North American Cultural History at the America Institute of Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich; Rubén G. Rumbaut, Professor of Sociology at University of California – Irvine; noted local Americanist and Professor of Modern History at the University of Salzburg Reinhold Wagnleitner; as well as the report’s author, Salzburg Global Seminar’s Senior Program Adviser, Edward Mortimer. Salzburg Global Seminar is an apt place to hold such a session, not only for its own long tradition of bringing scholars of both the US and Europe together, but also for its location – an Austrian palace built by a Protestant-expelling Catholic Prince-Archbishop and once owned by the exiled Jewish theater director Max Reinhardt before being seized by the local Nazi Gauleiter – a stark reminder of the levels of religious intolerance once present in Europe. A living testament to such intolerance, faculty member Hedwig Rose will recount Fellows with her personal history as a “hidden child” in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands during her talk on “The Scourge of Scapegoating.” Chaired by Peter Rose, Sophia Smith Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Anthropology and Senior Fellow of the Kahn Liberal Arts Institute, Smith College, and former director, American Studies Diploma Program, Smith College, participants will take part in plenary sessions, panels, and discussion groups looking at such topics as the push and pull factors for migration; the dichotomies between “natives” and “newcomers” and their significance in the US and various parts of Europe; identities and distinctions between “they” and “we” as expressed in politics and in the art and literature of marginality; patterns of adaptation, integration and isolation; and the varied meanings of “tolerance.” Not only will the symposium look back at the last decade, it will also conclude by looking forward – what does the future hold for ethnic and religious relations in the US and Europe? The Council of Europe report suggests that improvements will need the co-operation of a great many actors: educators, mass media, trade unions, civil society, churches and religious groups, celebrities and so-called “role models”, as well as municipal, national, regional and international institutions. But true to the 65-year history of the formerly-named Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, now Salzburg Global Seminar, and the words of first-session faculty member, the acclaimed anthropologist Margaret Mead, the symposium will start its work with a small group of committed people, and that should never be underestimated.
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VOICES FROM YOUNG CULTURAL LEADERS

How should cultural institutions approach the creation and articulation of value?
Albino Jopela, archaelogist and lecturer at Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique suggests that considering the values of all of the stakeholders in a community will help ensure relevance and sustainability.


Why is it important for arts leaders to engage in cross-cultural conversations?
Jimena Lara Estrada, program coordinator for the Mexican Cultural Institute of New York, talks about connecting with other leaders and the hope that it instills.

How do you articulate value of arts in a society where it is largely seen as a commodity?
Eyad Houssami, founding director of Masrah Ensemble in Lebanon, talks about the challenges of making a case for the arts in a society where the concept of public value is very limited.

What role should orchestras play in their communities?
Mark Gillespie, general and artistic manager of Orchestra of the Americas and Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Leaders Fellow, suggests that orchestras should connect with youth at a very early age so that musicians grow out of the community.